Commonly used Drugs that Affect the Mind

The three most commonly used Drugs that Affect the Mind are alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine. They are called GATEWAY DRUGS, the gateway to all other drugs.

1. Alcohol

Alcoholism is a major issue outstared by the society. Even the slightest amount of alcohol affects your body systems. It causes emotional as well as physical changes leading to body distress. Too much drinking has long-term impacts on your body leading to serious health complications.

There are a number of harmful effects of drinking alcohol. It affects the different parts of your body in a grave manner leading to alarming damage.

Brain-The term blacking out is extremely menacing and risky. Passing out is very common when going out for a party; consume alcohol, and then the next day you just wake up without having any memories of last night. Usually, we see people indulge in activities like drunk driving, unsafe sex or sometimes vandalization under the influence of alcohol. This clearly shows that alcohol muddles with your brain making it very difficult for an individual to think clearly. A person undergoes mood swings sometimes unveiling violent behavior.

Immune System

Excessive drinking leads to a weaker immune system, making your body an easy prey to diseases. Problems like nerve cell damage, ulcers in the stomach, diabetes, pneumonia, and cancer are very common among chronic drinkers.


Alcohol drinking enfeebles the heart. There are a lot of people who consume alcohol on a regular basis and as a result face severe heart problems such as high blood pressure, stroke, cardiomyopathy- a problem related to heart muscles, etc.

2. Marijuana

Impact of marijuana on brain

Since THC acts on the specific brain cell receptors that usually react to the natural THC-like chemicals, the discovery of the presence of cannabinoid receptors in the brain by Miles Herkenham and his team at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) in 1989 unlocked the door of mystery. This was a major milestone in understanding the effects of marijuana in humans. Here are some of the effects of marijuana that came to light after years of research and clinical trials:

Changes in sleep pattern: As one of the most disputed symptoms of marijuana use, some research and studies suggest that a high level of THC can cause sleep problems and restlessness. Although the build-up of tolerance is suspected to alter sleep patterns in marijuana users, it is known that the presence of THC reduces the duration of rapid eye movement (REM) during sleep, a phase during which a person tends to dream.

Rise in heart rate: Marijuana use can trigger myocardial infarction. When a person uses marijuana, increased heart rate is a common phenomenon. Studies have found that there is 4.8 times risk of heart attack after smoking marijuana.

The desire for munchies: A stoked appetite is a common effect of marijuana use. Prior research has discovered that cannabinoid receptors in the hypothalamus can activate the release of the hormones leptin and neuropeptide Y that trigger appetite.

Memory impairment: Marijuana use affects the brain region known as the hippocampus, which plays an important role in the formation of new memories. Although marijuana use does not destroy old memories, it inhibits the creation of new memories by changing the cellular process of the hippocampus. Studies suggest that the long-term use of marijuana reduces an individual’s IQ and creates difficulties in thinking and problem-solving, which fail to improve even after the person quits the drug.

Diminishment in body movement: Miles Herkenham found that a bundle of cannabinoid receptors is located in the hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, and cerebellum. Brain regions like the striatum and substantia nigra are responsible for coordinating movements. When THC is present in a person’s system, it disrupts his or her motor control ability as witnessed in the case of alcohol. This poses a great deal of risk, especially when a marijuana user takes the control of the wheel after using marijuana.

3. Cocaine

Cocaine is a drug that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant and is an extremely powerful stimulant for the nervous system of the human body. Medically this is known as Benzoylmethylecgonine. It is used in various applications in the medical industry. But because of its, ability to affect the brain and cause a euphoric sensation and the addictive nature, this is one of the most preferred drugs of abuse.

In most parts of the world, it can’t be grown, cultivated or distributed freely apart from the sanctioned uses in medical and governmental fields. Even then the usage and production of cocaine remain extremely controlled. In spite of such restriction for cultivating, distributing and using the drug, it remains one of the widely used drugs in the world. In street language, it’s known as crack and is actually an inferior quality of cocaine that is used by drug addicts.

What are cocaine and its effects on the body depends on the pattern of usage and the reason for usage?

Since this is an extremely powerful nerve stimulant, the effects of the drug can last anywhere from 15 minutes to an hour, depending on the way that the cocaine has been taken. There are several mechanisms for taking cocaine such as snorting, inhaling and even injecting it.

Since it increases the alertness, feeling of wellbeing and euphoria in the body, these drugs tend to be taken by sportsmen, performers and those that are under constant pressure to perform very well. With chronic use of the drug, it can severely impair the senses and also affect all organs of the body. In extreme cases, when overdosing of the drug is seen; it can also cause the death of the person.

The physical effects of the addiction to cocaine can cause hemoptysis, bronchospasm, pulmonary and systemic eosinophilia, pain in the chest and lungs, asthma, sore throats, flu-like symptoms, degradation of the cartilage that is present in the nose (due to frequent snorting) and many more. Cocaine addicts are also at a higher risk of getting many types of autoimmune deficiency and disorders. These include lupus, Goodpasture’s disease, Stevens-Johnson’s disease and many more. Since the cocaine addicts are prone to sharing needles for injecting themselves with the drug, they can also contract HIV and AIDs.

The addicts are also susceptible to a risk of many heart problems.

Other manifestations that can be seen when a person has become a cocaine addict is depression, mood swings, fatigue, erectile dysfunction, increased or decreased appetite, anxiety, suicidal tendencies, aches, frequent runny nose and many more.

The Ultimate Guide to Painkiller Drugs

Painkillers are drugs utilized in easing pain. The essential thing is to know how their functioning in assuaging muscle pain and different sorts of irritation.

Individuals regularly utilize painkillers to alleviate muscle pain after a strenuous activity. With this, they have higher odds of anguish from long frequently ingesting analgesics.

But every drug functions uniquely in contrast to the next, influencing the body differently, and when they ought to be utilized are a portion of the focuses individuals regularly miss in utilizing these painkillers.

Likewise, our bodies additionally react uniquely in contrast to the medications we’re taking to mitigate paining.

The objective of this article is to enhance your insight on the diverse kinds of painkillers, their reactions, how they can be joined with different medications, and when they’re best. Before taking painkillers its good to understand course of pain.

Knowing the Pain Cause.

Before taking in any medicine, it’s imperative to know the reason for the pain. The speediest and surest approach to treat any damage is to recognize the reason for torment.

Painkillers are just transitory solutions. Since, can be effectively acquired and they’re speedy acting however whatever they can do is cover the torment for a specific measure of time not to heal.

Disregarding the agony for quite a while keeps your body from normally mending your muscles and declines your general condition over the long haul.

There are numerous elements to consider while treating damage. The contribution of your physiotherapist will generally include appropriate rest and execution of activities concentrated on restoration. Painkillers may likewise be utilized yet they’re ordinarily suggested just when it becomes intorelable.

A List of Painkillers to Consider:

The following are the best painkillers intended to assuage pain from hurting muscles.

1. Paracetamol

Its a great painkiller to both adult and kid.

4g day by day or 1g taken 4 times each day.


Paracetamol is broadly accessible in sedate stores all over the place. They’re over-the-counter meds, meaning one don’t need to display prescription to purchase the drug.

The Paracetamol is normally a ingredient found in drugs made to treat influenza or cough. Its additionally an antipyretic medication which implies it can diminish the temperature of the person who’s ingesting it.

Taking the right dosage of paracetamol is ideal to avoiding overdose. The Paracetamol overdose brings irreversible harm to the liver. Also, ingesting more than the prescribed sum has little impact on the productivity of the medication because of ceiling impact.

The Paracetamol is likewise used expand the intensity of different analgesics and codeine subordinates.

The Reactions:

The drug is moderately sheltered contrasted with different drugs yet it can harm your kidneys and liver in the event that you take excessively.

2. The Co-proxamol

The Co-proxamol is a low-dosage rendition of paracetamol combined with codeine-based medication called dextropropoxyphene.

The medication has pain alleviating quality like a standard paracetamol however demonstrates a higher shot of getting you overdosed.

3. The Non-steroidals Anti-provocative Drug or the NSAIDs.

The permitted dose relies upon the kind of NSAID one is taking.

The Descriptions:

Ibuprofen is the most mainstream NSAID available. Its generally accessible and can be acquired without displaying any medical prescribes.


NSAIDs can cause ulcer, diarrhoea, stomachache, kidney harm and some of the time dying.

The NSAID are accessible in various structures beside oral tablets. They can be found in topical gels, suppositories and infusions.

a) NSAID gels

The NSAIDs gel are valuable in treating aggravations like musle strains, joint pain, and tendonitis.

Diverse types of NSAIDs shouldn’t be taken at the same time. An oral NSAID consumed by the body shouldn’t be aggravated with another NSAID applied topically as this will expand the possibility of reactions to show.

An excess of NSAID in the body can cause stomach disturbance and dying. Individuals who are endorsed to ingest NSAIDs for longer periods are normally given another medication to balance the harming impact of NSAIDs on their stomach. These balancing medications can be controlled as a different tablet, in spite of the fact that there are some that are joined with NSAIDs. One illustration is Napratec which is mix of misoprostol as the medication that secures the stomach and naproxen an NSAID.

b) COX-2 inhibitors

The COX-2 inhibitor is a particular sort of NSAID reachable just through medicine. Meloxicam, Celecoxib, and rofecoxib are common variations of the kind. These variations have less problems on the stomach contrasted with different NSAIDs.

Rofecoxib has the probability of a patient to encounter heart issues. With this, worries alternate variations may have comparative symptoms have been raise.

4. Aspirin Painkillers.

The most extreme dosage for grown-ups in normally.

Four grams everyday. The aspirin tablets are accessible in doses ranging 300mg – 900mg. Taken in each 4 – 6 hrs every day.

The Description:

The aspirin is a mellow painkiller, like paracetamol. Likewise can be accustomed to cut down the temperatures of somebody with fever. However, not given to individuals who have asthma or ulcer or any individual who is under inflammation treatment.

Headache medicine is utilized more as a blood slender instead of a painkiller. Its capacity to lessen blood clumps has been observed to be extremely valuable on individuals who show some heart issue.

Its side effect:

The aspirin only sometimes demonstrates reactions in patients. Albeit uncommon, its reactions incorporate ulcer, aggravation of the stomach, and lessened blood coagulating. It can likewise cause asthma assaults to individuals who have previous sthma issues.

5. The Opioids.

Dosage relies upon the kind of opioid one is utilizing.


They display properties like that of codeine ( the tramadols) and pethidine (the morphines). Opioids are chronic painkillers rather than acute wounds pains. They do not have the counter pyretic and antiinflammatory properties that different analgesics posses.

Weakest opioids accessible are found as dihydrocodeine and the codeine phosphate. These medications are the main structures accessible and might be used together with paracetamol without side effects.

The side effects:

Constipation, nausea, vomiting, and itching are a portion of side effects. Large doses reduces blood pressure.

Best Tips for Painkillers

Regardless of whether you’re encountering a genuine injury or a gentle headache, making sure to take the painkillers that gives you minimal side effects is good.

Supposing that the agony holds on even after continually taking paracetamol, you may take a stab at taking NSAID when you feel outrageous pains. In case it fails to work, attempt routinely ingesting NSAIDs with paracetamol.

The Ibuprofen can likewise be replaced using stronger NSAIDs or opioids like codeine if agony still perseveres.

Incase all above prescriptions still doesn’t help then its good consulting the doctor.


Painkillers ought to be ingested just as recommended. Much the same as some other pharmaceutical, you need to peruse understand the medication.

Kids are typically recommended lower dose which their bodies can deal with. Ingesting more than the suggested dose of any medication isn’t just hazardous yet in addition ineffective.

While ingesting any sort of medication, regardless of how safe it will be, it’s constantly better to be wary. In the event that you encounter any reaction or experiencing difficulty taking in your medicine, it’s best to counsel your specialist and look for their expert guidance.