Penile Girth: The Key Components to Increasing It

Studies have revealed that one of the things men are concerned about is their penis. Actually,figures state that over 40% of men are concerned about their penis size. Penis size means both the lenght and girth. While many people are aware of their penis length, their girth is a thing they have no idea about. Furthermore, they may not know how to even measure it and its implications when it comes to love making with their spouse. Contained herein is what you need to know about your penis girth and an interesting exercise for male sex organs.

•How To Measure Penis Girth

Take a measuring tape and wrap it around your widest part of your penis. You can also use anything else as long as it is not injurious to your penis.
Mark the beginning of the tape or what you are using and mark the point where the tape meets the beginning of your tape.
Uncoil the tape and read your penis girth. If using a non calibrated sheet, transfer the lenght and read it off a ruler.
The diameter you get with a flaccid penis is your flaccid girth while the diameter for a phallus is your erect penis girth.

•Facts About Penis Girth

On average, the normal penis girth should be between 3.5 – 5.0 inches. Studies show that the modal erect penis girth occurs between 10-13 cms. 35% of men have an erect girth of 12cm which is the highest percentage. 28% have an erect girth of 13cm. However, there are also extremes, both low and high. Some men may have an erect girth of 7cm while other have a girth as big as the 16cm.

•How To Know If You Have A Micropenis.

On average, an adult erect penis is less than 7cm long and a girth less than 5cm long, then it is deemed to be abnormally low. On the other hand, penis length exceeding 23cm and a girth of 16cm implies a big penis. Both these two girls extremes have solutions. In case of a micropenis, there are artificial enlargements available.

•Impacts of Penis Girth

In a study conducted to determine how women perceive different penis sizes, women seemed to prefer different sizes for different relationships. For one night stands, they preferred longer penises and a wider girth. A penis long as 16cm and a girth of 12cm was preferred for a one night stand. However, for one time partner and long relationships, women preferred a shorter and less wider penis. The girth for these type of relationships was 10cm. Thus, you need not to worry much if your life partner is getting enough fun when you make love. The penis size for a lasting relationship is smaller.

Conclusively, the penis girth has an impact on your love making. However, do not be lured to believing that you can increase or reduce your girth through diet or constant sexual arousal. The penis grows at early stages of life and also between 14-17 years. Most importantly, in case you think of an abnormality in your penis size and girth, seek medical advice in stead of using unauthentic means to rectify your problem.

The Autism Spectrum Explained

Introduction to Autism Spectrum Disorder

An individual suffering from autism spectrum disorder possesses a set of conditions that limit their interactions in the social circles, behavioral issues, and problems related to the way the individuals communicate verbally or non-verbally.

Autism separates the individuals from the rest by characterizing a variety of differences and along with incredible characteristics specific to them.

Autistic people are specially-abled individuals who could perform specific activities in ways far better than regular; they might take longer to produce the similar outcomes on certain activities.

The much unique strength that autistic people display may include enhanced concentration skills, an eye for detail, and interests in specific activities to an extent where they excel at it among others.

Introduction of the word ‘spectrum’ directly relates to this wide range of characteristics of individuals who suffer from autism and sets them apart from other individuals and makes them look at the world in a different light altogether.

Apart from the challenges that autism spectrum disorder offers, the most important ones include dealing with the treatment that they receive from the outside world and staying stress-free.

It has been known that the symptoms for autism begin to appear at a very young age, usually before 3 years of age and if parents are observant enough to notice them and take consultation, the overall outcomes can be altered for good.

However, it can also be diagnosed later in some of the cases.

You must also understand that there are various types of autism spectrum disorders and that they are all having different effects on the individuals suffering from autism.

And it is practically impossible to find two individuals that share the same characteristics.

Given that curing autism is still a big challenge, you can still help the individuals by exposing them to support groups and therapy.

Reasons that Cause Autism Spectrum Disorder

Till this day, the exact reasons are still not known but there have been studies which claim that autism in kids is caused because of multiple factors such as the genes and the surroundings that affect the development of the brain of the children.

However, researchers are working towards getting to the root cause of autism so that they can find ways for prevention from it or cure it in the later years.

It was believed for many years that autism was caused by a special vaccine called MMR but after years of research, it was found that autism is not caused by any vaccines.

Major Challenges faced by Autistic People

The individuals who are suffering from autism spectrum disorder tend to show some or all of the below-mentioned characteristics:

  • Insomnia and difficulties in sleep cycles
  • Inability to interact or socialize with people and make new friends
  • Stress, depression, and anxiety
  • Lack of interest in people or activities
  • Atypical expressions and body postures
  • Lack of communication skills
  • Problems related to language comprehension
  • Unusual body movements and obsessive in behavior
  • Repetitiveness in conversations and behavior
  • A strong dislike for change in the schedule

The people suffering from autism cannot be differentiated physically and it’s only these symptoms that could help you identify if someone is suffering from autism spectrum disorder.

Types of Autism Spectrum Disorders

As Prof Stephen Shore aptly stated- “If you have met one person on the autism spectrum, you’ve met one person on the spectrum.”

There are a large number of autism spectrum disorders most common of which are:

  • Asperger Syndrome
  • Autism
  • Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

This is the most recent classification that is used to describe people suffering from autism spectrum disorder.

1. Asperger Syndrome

People suffering from Asperger Syndrome are known to be one of the most intelligent individuals who possess unique strengths and can perform better than their ormal’ counterparts.

These people are passionate and self-driven towards any specific area of interest and constantly work towards excelling at it.

However, these people lack social and communication skills and tend to be really uncomfortable when they have to interact with others.


PDD-NOS or Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Specified Otherwise is not a mild form of autism spectrum disorder such as Asperger Syndrome and displays some or all of the challenges mentioned and lack social and communication skills to a much lower extent.

3. Autism

Autism includes most of the systems of the autism spectrum disorder and the people are known to display extreme characteristics before they reach the age of three.

4. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

One of the rare and most critical parts of the spectrum, Childhood Disintegrative Syndrome affects the people after they have been born normal.

The syndrome is known to affect the children and make them lose all their skill as soon as they reach the second year of their life.

This syndrome might also cause seizures and epilepsy among the children.

This means you can find various people who are equally autistic with having strong contrasts in their mental abilities and behavioral patterns.

You can place almost everyone suffering from autism spectrum disorder on the spectrum with the severity of the behavior patterns deciding their positions on it.

The people at the two extreme ends are classified on the basis of their mental abilities.

It is also found that there is a whole new spectrum within the mentioned spectrum that shows variations in the generic ideas.

Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder

Once the type of the autism spectrum disorder is diagnosed, you can move towards the next step of treating it.

It must be understood that there has been no effective cure found for this disorder yet but you can always get support and therapy in order to make their situations better.

If you are worried about your child’s condition and want to determine whether he/she is suffering from autism spectrum syndrome, it is recommended that you see experienced professionals because the diagnosis of autism is an intricate procedure.

You can go for a particular treatment after your kid has been diagnosed with the type of autism spectrum disorder.

These tests include an assessment to evaluate your child’s cognitive skills, assessment of communication skills to identify any specific disorder, and assessment of your child’s problem-solving skills along with the evaluation of his skills to interact in social groups among others.

10 Ways to Care For a Child With Autism

Autism is a condition characterized by challenges in speech, intellectual ability, motor and general social skills.

There are several types of autism. The condition is caused by genetic and environmental factors, and it presents a big puzzle to caregivers.

Taking care of an autistic child can be devastating.

If you have just learnt that your child has autism, you most probably are frightened and wondering how you will take care of your child without necessarily wearing yourself out.

If you are wondering on how to adequately take care of your autistic child, read on. The tips discussed below will come in handy in ensuring you as a parent, or caretaker effectively and adequately takes care of an autistic child.

1. Accept your child’s condition

The first and most significant step towards ensuring your child leads almost a healthy life is accepting their situation.

Being at peace with your child’s condition will boost your self-esteem, as well as the kid’s.

Do not compare your child to other children.

Celebrate any small progress as if it were a significant achievement. Let the kid know that you love them unconditionally.

If they feel the love, the kid’s self-esteem is boosted.

This way, they will have the zeal to engage in activities that boost their growth and development.

2. Be consistent to reinforce learning

Autistic children may have problems putting to action what they learn. If the parent does not ensure they rehearse what the child has mastered, they will most probably forget everything.

A parent should keep abreast with what the child learns at school or at the therapist’s.

You should then help the child rehearse what they discovered.

A child may have little or no interest in rehearsing.

In fact, they may feel like you are harassing them.

This is why a parent should create a consistent schedule of rehearsing. For instance, it becomes easier for an autistic child to learn sign language if they are taught the same at the same hours daily.

3. Always reinforce positive behavior

If you fail to reinforce positivity in your child, you are creating a risky precedence.

Any little progress should be awarded praises, celebrations or even material rewards.

Make an effort to catch’ the child doing something positive.

If not, you could give them a chance to perform their newly learned skill, and later award them.

4. Create a safe environment for them

Ensure that the home environment is safe for an autistic child to play.

It is advisable to secure a safe play-zone’ for your kid in the house.

Keep the room safe from anything that can hurt the child.

Some autistic children are prone to throwing tantrums, violent behaviors
and self-injurious characteristics.

If the room is not safe for the child to play around, they may seriously injure themselves.

You do not want to add injuries to autism because it takes a twist that will change how you give to your child.

Keep your home safe not only for your autistic kid but also for everyone.

5. Play with the child

Spend a lot of time playing with your child.

Just like any other child, autistic children love to have fun.

They love to engage in educational and therapeutic activities.

Playing with the child will make them feel loved.

Show the kid how different toys are used.

Playing with the kid will also help them develop their social skills.

Ensure you show them their boundaries while playing, and letting them know what they can touch, and what they cannot.

6. Master their non-verbal cues

Autistic children mostly have challenges with verbal communication.

They, therefore, use non-verbal cues to communicate.

Learn this non-verbal cues to enhance communication with the child.

The child may throw tantrums, use gestures, signs and body language to communicate.

Learn these cues and act accordingly whenever a child needs anything.

It is also essential to learn what bothers the child, what the child enjoys, and what relaxes them.

7. Create an effective treatment plan

There are different treatment plans for autistic children.

This is because there are different spectrums of the autism.

All in all, the treatment plan should:

  • Focus on cultivating the child’s interest
  • Create a predictable learning and play schedule
  • Teach skills and tasks as a series of simplified steps
  •  Reinforce positive behavior
  • Involve parents, teachers and therapists

Once the child’s strengths have been established, the treatment plan should focus on reinforcing the strengths.

The plan should incorporate means of using the kids plan to learn new skills.

When choosing an autistic treatment, it is advisable to consult a therapist and doctors.

Some treatments aim at reducing problematic and undesirable traits while building positive traits.

Some approaches focus on sensory integration problems, emotional balance, speech development and development of motor skills.

8. Teach self-care skills

It is essential to have in mind that not all autistic people are the same.

Some have abilities that others do not have.

If the child is not able to take care of themselves, it is advisable to teach them one skill at a go.

For instance, teach them to brush their teeth, and then show them how to bath.

Do not be frustrated when they do not master the skills.

It may take time for them to learn a skill.

Patience is required whenever dealing with autistic children.

9. Expose the child to the world around them

Spend a lot of time with the kid.

Take them to shows, shopping, do groceries, and even to the malls. Do not lock up the kid.

Exposing the kid to the environment helps them develop social skills, and have a look at what is around them.

No parent is prepared to have a kid who is less than healthy and happy.

All parents wish to have bouncy children, who will progress to their adulthood without any significant health conditions.

If your kid has been diagnosed with autism, you will have to be emotionally stable, for yourself and the child.

Taking good care of them will make their growth and development easy.

In Conclusion

Autism can be overwhelming.

It is good to have a few nights or day off when your child is of course under the care of a nanny.

Furthermore, you could join support groups for autistic children.

In this autistic support groups, you can learn tips on how to take care of autistic children, without necessarily wearing yourself out.

The Top Existing Treatments for Autism

It takes a lot of time and resources to take care of autistic children or relatives.

It is therefore paramount to understand what Autism is, what causes the condition and if there is any cure or treatment for the same.

Autism whose full name is Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a condition that develops when one is very young.

People with ASD usually perceive the world in a different way.

Their brain is affected and they have a problem socializing with other people.

Another symptom is that people with the condition also develop a limited, repetitive pattern in their behavior.

Since the condition has a wide range of symptoms and severity, it is referred to as Autism spectrum’ Disorder.

Usually, children with the condition will start to show the symptoms in their first year. Other children will develop the symptoms after 18 to 24 months.

What Causes Autism?

Unfortunately, the condition does not have any specific known cause.

Since the condition has a very wide range of severity and symptoms, there might be more than one cause of the diseases.

However, genetic and environmental factors might play a role.


Genes can be responsible for the condition in children.

Some genetic disorders like Rett syndrome as well as weak X syndrome might be responsible for the condition.

Additionally, genetic mutations or changes might be responsible for the condition.

Genes might also be responsible for disruption in brain cell communication or affect the development of the brain cell thus causing ASD.Some gene mutation are inherited while others occur on their own accord.

Environmental Factors

Some of the environmental factors that are thought to cause autism are complications during pregnancy, viral infections, or air pollution.

Treatment for Autism

Due to the wide spectrum of the severity and symptoms of the condition, there are different treatments to ASD.

A combination of therapies is used to treat ASDto improve fine motor skills, speech and behavior.

In addition to therapy, medication can also be used to treat the symptoms that accompany the disease.

Although treatments can vary, the goal is the same- to help the child learn and relative as best as they can to the people and environment around them.

Types of Treatments (Behavioral and Communication)

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)

This treatment is very common in people especially children with autism and is administered mainly in schools and clinics. The main goal of the treatment is to help the child learn positive behavior and shun negative tendencies.Applied Behavior Analysis involves the following treatments.

  • Discrete Trial Training-in this case, simple lessons and positive reinforcement is used.
  • Pivotal Response Training- very important in helping the patient to learn and communicate.
  • Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention- this is a treatment that is well suited for children under the age of 5 years.
  • Verbal Behavioral Intervention- it is a treatment that deals mainly with language skills.

Developmental, Individual Differences, Relationship-Based Approach (DIR)

DIR is also known as the floortime treatment.

It is so called because the treatment involves getting to the floor with the autistic child to engage in the activities they like.

The purpose of this treatment is to help the child grow intellectually and emotionally.

It also helps them learn how to communicate and also develop and express their emotions.

Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication- Handicapped Children (TEACCH)

The treatment uses visual representations like picture cards to teach the child activities like getting dressed.

The trick of the treatment is to use small chunks of information to teach the child the skills you want them to learn.

Play Treatment

Although children with autism play differently from other children, they none the less play and as such it is important to understand their play behavior.

They basically focus on specific parts of a toy instead on the whole toy itself.Additionally, they might not want to play with other children and they do not also like pretend play.

Apart from all this, children with ASD will usually express themselves through play.

They use their toys and actions to pass on a message.

Through play treatment, children with autism learn how to connect with other children and adults as well.

Additionally, play therapy is used by therapists to help autistic children develop their social interaction and communication skills.

Occupational Therapy Treatments

This is therapy that helps an autistic child to develop skills in various areas.

It involves activities like buttoning up or holding the fork.

It is also helpful in teaching the child other activities and skills like school work or play.

As earlier stated, each autistic child is unique and occupational therapy depends on the condition of a specific child.

Speech Therapy

As the name suggests, speech therapy is used to help the child with their communicative and interaction skills.

Speech therapy does not necessarily mean speaking, non-verbal skills,such as making eye contact, are also taught in this treatment.

The child is also taught how to be engaged in a conversation by responding when they are required to respond.

The therapy also involves teaching the child to recognize and respond to gestures.

The child is also taught how to express themselves through picture cues, computers and sign language.

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)

ABA is one of the most widely used treatment for ASD.

It works very well when it is used on children below the age of 5 years.

It also works equally well with children above the age of 5 years.

The treatment is used to teach children how to socialize, improve fine motor skills and speech.

The child is also taught how to increase their reasoning skills.

The treatment works best with positive reinforcement and observation.

However, ABA treatment has several drawbacks. First, it requires a one-on-one session between the therapist and the autistic child. Secondly, it is an expensive therapy.

For best results, it is best for a parent to learn this therapy so that they can continuously reinforce positive behavior in the autistic child.

Despite these drawbacks, the treatment is one of the best since it ensures that your child is suited better to interact with autistic and non-autistic people in the best way possible.


Autism is a disorder that mainly affects the brain causing a person to have a problem while interacting with other people and the surrounding environment.

Although the condition is incurable, there are different types of treatments available to help the person lead a better life.

The History of Autism and its Discovery

Many people that do not know the history of autism think that it is a recent modern day discovery.

That is because there are more cases of autism reported now than there were many years ago.

The assumption is before autism got its diagnostic name, it did not exist.

However, this is not true, as autism has existed for as long as man has existed.

Fortunately, now we have organizations like the National Autism Organization.

The only difference between then and now is that autism had other labels all with different meanings.

People that had autism in the 1800’s got different and sometimes extremely harsh treatment from society than those that have the medical condition today.

They did not fit in with other members of the society andfaced ostracizationand labelling.

This has however changed over the years as people continue learning the history of autism.

Before we review the history of autism, let us learn what autism is.

What is Autism?

The definition of autism varies and many people confuse autism with autism spectrum disorder.

The two are completely different.

Autism is a developmental disorder that could get serious that impairs a person’s ability to interact and communicate well.

Autism spectrum disorder on the other hand is a range of varying conditions all characterized by several challenges ranging from repetitive behaviours, unique strengths, social and communication skills and different ways of doing things.

There are many types of autism, all caused by varying combinations of environmental and genetic influences.

In majority of the cases, autism appears to children aged between 2 and 3 years.

Some early diagnosis to children as young as 18 months is also possible.

Some of the delays brought about by autism can be rectified if addressed early enough.

Signs and symptoms of autism

Some of the most common symptoms of autism are

  • Communication difficulties
  • Difficulties in interacting socially
  • Obsessive behaviours
  • Repetitive disorder

The early signs are:

Failure for a child to make eye contact especially during feeding time, smile back, respond to familiar voices and his or her name, follow visual objects, gesticulate.

There is no cure for autism but there are different therapies that make it easier for people living with autism to cope.

These are music therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, speech therapy and teacher therapy.

The History and Discovery of Autism

Before 1911, the word autism did not exist.

It was simply a condition with many different labels.

Since 1908, the understanding of autism has changed a lot with more and more people accepting it as a medical condition like any other.

Below are the main events in the history and discovery of autism


1908 is the year that the word autism came into being.

A Swiss psychiatrist by the name Eugene Bleuler was the first person to come up with the name to describe several schizophrenic patients that seemed self-absorbed and withdrawn.

Bleuler derived the word autism from the Greek word autos, meaning self.

Autism, according to Bleuler meant withdrawal within self and morbid self-admiration.


In 1943, child psychiatrists Leo Kanner and Hans Asperger, the following year, worked separately to carry out a research on autism.

Kanner reported on the children severely affected by autism, while Asperger reported on autistic children that were able to do things well.

In his study, Kanner had children for his research all with varying conditions.

The conditions ranged from difficulties in adapting to changing routines daily, interacting socially, keeping good memories, lack of stimuli sensitivity, food allergies, echolalia, lack of spontaneity and intellectual potential.


On the other hand, Hans Asperger studied children with the same symptoms and signs of those that Kanner studied apart from a few differences.

His group of children did not portray any linguistic problems but instead spoke as if they were grown-ups.

This means they did not have Echolia like Kanner group of children.

In his research paper, he also noted that many of the children with autism that he studied portrayed completely different motor skills from those of normal children.

He also noted that they were clumsy and over active.


Next to carry out research on autism and autism, spectrum disorder was Bruno Bettelman.

Bruno studied the effect therapy would have on autistic children by putting three children into therapy and studied their response.

His report talked on “refrigerator mothers” who he said were the causes of autism in children.

“Refrigerator mothers” means the mothers were not warming up to their autistic children making their conditions worsen.

He then went ahead to separate the children from their mothers and observe the outcome.

His theory that the kids suffered due to living with frigid mothers of course came under attack because it was not true.

One parent advisor by the name Fred Volkmar, who was also the M.D and Director of the Child Study Centre at Yale University of Medicine, explained that the researchers failed to consider the role genetics and biology played in the development of autistic disorders.


In the 1970’s, people were now more aware of autism and its symptoms.

A research carried out on twins in 1977, showed that the causes of autism were largely due to biological differences in a child’s brain development and genetics.


Erica foundation was founded with the main aim of offering education and therapy to children with psychosis.

Some parents still thought their autistic children were either psychotic or mentally retarded.

“Infantile autism” got a listing for the first time in the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders.

This helped to officially separate childhood schizophrenia with autism.

Still in the 1980’s, Lorna Wing and Christopher Gillberg added disturbed mutual communication, limited imagination and disturbed mutual contact as other autistic disorders.

In 1990, they added a fourth one, which was limited ability to plan.


DSM replaced infantile autism in 1987 with a more thorough autism disorder definition.

The replacement included a checklist with different criteria for diagnosis.

In the same year, a study showing intensive therapy can help control autism was published by Ivar Lovaas, an UCLA psychologist.

This gave hoe to many parents that had autistic children.


Public awareness to autism got a boost with the release of the movie Rain ManthatfeaturedDustin Hoffman as an autistic person who could carry out huge calculations because of his photographicmemory.


Autism became a category in the special education unit and schools started identifying kids with autism and offering different kinds of services to them.

In the same year, Asperger’s syndrome got an addition in the DSM.

This helped to include autistic cases of highly functional individuals.


Lancet published an article linking measles-mumps-rubella vaccine to autism.

There was no proof though though which saw the finding being questioned.


Due to fears from the public, the vaccine thimerosal, which contained a mercury-basedpreservative,was removed from all vaccines given to children.

There was fear that it too contributed to autism.

This claim was also questioned and said not to be true.


CDC improves screening for children to determine those that have autism.

It also established that the numbers of the disorder was on the rise.


This year saw the creation of ASD, which brought all the sub categories of autism together.

ASD is in two categories, which are 1) restricted and or repetitive behaviour, and 2) impairedsocial communication and/or interaction.

Commonly used Drugs that Affect the Mind

The three most commonly used Drugs that Affect the Mind are alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine. They are called GATEWAY DRUGS, the gateway to all other drugs.

1. Alcohol

Alcoholism is a major issue outstared by the society. Even the slightest amount of alcohol affects your body systems. It causes emotional as well as physical changes leading to body distress. Too much drinking has long-term impacts on your body leading to serious health complications.

There are a number of harmful effects of drinking alcohol. It affects the different parts of your body in a grave manner leading to alarming damage.

Brain-The term blacking out is extremely menacing and risky. Passing out is very common when going out for a party; consume alcohol, and then the next day you just wake up without having any memories of last night. Usually, we see people indulge in activities like drunk driving, unsafe sex or sometimes vandalization under the influence of alcohol. This clearly shows that alcohol muddles with your brain making it very difficult for an individual to think clearly. A person undergoes mood swings sometimes unveiling violent behavior.

Immune System

Excessive drinking leads to a weaker immune system, making your body an easy prey to diseases. Problems like nerve cell damage, ulcers in the stomach, diabetes, pneumonia, and cancer are very common among chronic drinkers.


Alcohol drinking enfeebles the heart. There are a lot of people who consume alcohol on a regular basis and as a result face severe heart problems such as high blood pressure, stroke, cardiomyopathy- a problem related to heart muscles, etc.

2. Marijuana

Impact of marijuana on brain

Since THC acts on the specific brain cell receptors that usually react to the natural THC-like chemicals, the discovery of the presence of cannabinoid receptors in the brain by Miles Herkenham and his team at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) in 1989 unlocked the door of mystery. This was a major milestone in understanding the effects of marijuana in humans. Here are some of the effects of marijuana that came to light after years of research and clinical trials:

Changes in sleep pattern: As one of the most disputed symptoms of marijuana use, some research and studies suggest that a high level of THC can cause sleep problems and restlessness. Although the build-up of tolerance is suspected to alter sleep patterns in marijuana users, it is known that the presence of THC reduces the duration of rapid eye movement (REM) during sleep, a phase during which a person tends to dream.

Rise in heart rate: Marijuana use can trigger myocardial infarction. When a person uses marijuana, increased heart rate is a common phenomenon. Studies have found that there is 4.8 times risk of heart attack after smoking marijuana.

The desire for munchies: A stoked appetite is a common effect of marijuana use. Prior research has discovered that cannabinoid receptors in the hypothalamus can activate the release of the hormones leptin and neuropeptide Y that trigger appetite.

Memory impairment: Marijuana use affects the brain region known as the hippocampus, which plays an important role in the formation of new memories. Although marijuana use does not destroy old memories, it inhibits the creation of new memories by changing the cellular process of the hippocampus. Studies suggest that the long-term use of marijuana reduces an individual’s IQ and creates difficulties in thinking and problem-solving, which fail to improve even after the person quits the drug.

Diminishment in body movement: Miles Herkenham found that a bundle of cannabinoid receptors is located in the hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, and cerebellum. Brain regions like the striatum and substantia nigra are responsible for coordinating movements. When THC is present in a person’s system, it disrupts his or her motor control ability as witnessed in the case of alcohol. This poses a great deal of risk, especially when a marijuana user takes the control of the wheel after using marijuana.

3. Cocaine

Cocaine is a drug that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant and is an extremely powerful stimulant for the nervous system of the human body. Medically this is known as Benzoylmethylecgonine. It is used in various applications in the medical industry. But because of its, ability to affect the brain and cause a euphoric sensation and the addictive nature, this is one of the most preferred drugs of abuse.

In most parts of the world, it can’t be grown, cultivated or distributed freely apart from the sanctioned uses in medical and governmental fields. Even then the usage and production of cocaine remain extremely controlled. In spite of such restriction for cultivating, distributing and using the drug, it remains one of the widely used drugs in the world. In street language, it’s known as crack and is actually an inferior quality of cocaine that is used by drug addicts.

What are cocaine and its effects on the body depends on the pattern of usage and the reason for usage?

Since this is an extremely powerful nerve stimulant, the effects of the drug can last anywhere from 15 minutes to an hour, depending on the way that the cocaine has been taken. There are several mechanisms for taking cocaine such as snorting, inhaling and even injecting it.

Since it increases the alertness, feeling of wellbeing and euphoria in the body, these drugs tend to be taken by sportsmen, performers and those that are under constant pressure to perform very well. With chronic use of the drug, it can severely impair the senses and also affect all organs of the body. In extreme cases, when overdosing of the drug is seen; it can also cause the death of the person.

The physical effects of the addiction to cocaine can cause hemoptysis, bronchospasm, pulmonary and systemic eosinophilia, pain in the chest and lungs, asthma, sore throats, flu-like symptoms, degradation of the cartilage that is present in the nose (due to frequent snorting) and many more. Cocaine addicts are also at a higher risk of getting many types of autoimmune deficiency and disorders. These include lupus, Goodpasture’s disease, Stevens-Johnson’s disease and many more. Since the cocaine addicts are prone to sharing needles for injecting themselves with the drug, they can also contract HIV and AIDs.

The addicts are also susceptible to a risk of many heart problems.

Other manifestations that can be seen when a person has become a cocaine addict is depression, mood swings, fatigue, erectile dysfunction, increased or decreased appetite, anxiety, suicidal tendencies, aches, frequent runny nose and many more.

The Ultimate Guide to Painkiller Drugs

Painkillers are drugs utilized in easing pain. The essential thing is to know how their functioning in assuaging muscle pain and different sorts of irritation.

Individuals regularly utilize painkillers to alleviate muscle pain after a strenuous activity. With this, they have higher odds of anguish from long frequently ingesting analgesics.

But every drug functions uniquely in contrast to the next, influencing the body differently, and when they ought to be utilized are a portion of the focuses individuals regularly miss in utilizing these painkillers.

Likewise, our bodies additionally react uniquely in contrast to the medications we’re taking to mitigate paining.

The objective of this article is to enhance your insight on the diverse kinds of painkillers, their reactions, how they can be joined with different medications, and when they’re best. Before taking painkillers its good to understand course of pain.

Knowing the Pain Cause.

Before taking in any medicine, it’s imperative to know the reason for the pain. The speediest and surest approach to treat any damage is to recognize the reason for torment.

Painkillers are just transitory solutions. Since, can be effectively acquired and they’re speedy acting however whatever they can do is cover the torment for a specific measure of time not to heal.

Disregarding the agony for quite a while keeps your body from normally mending your muscles and declines your general condition over the long haul.

There are numerous elements to consider while treating damage. The contribution of your physiotherapist will generally include appropriate rest and execution of activities concentrated on restoration. Painkillers may likewise be utilized yet they’re ordinarily suggested just when it becomes intorelable.

A List of Painkillers to Consider:

The following are the best painkillers intended to assuage pain from hurting muscles.

1. Paracetamol

Its a great painkiller to both adult and kid.

4g day by day or 1g taken 4 times each day.


Paracetamol is broadly accessible in sedate stores all over the place. They’re over-the-counter meds, meaning one don’t need to display prescription to purchase the drug.

The Paracetamol is normally a ingredient found in drugs made to treat influenza or cough. Its additionally an antipyretic medication which implies it can diminish the temperature of the person who’s ingesting it.

Taking the right dosage of paracetamol is ideal to avoiding overdose. The Paracetamol overdose brings irreversible harm to the liver. Also, ingesting more than the prescribed sum has little impact on the productivity of the medication because of ceiling impact.

The Paracetamol is likewise used expand the intensity of different analgesics and codeine subordinates.

The Reactions:

The drug is moderately sheltered contrasted with different drugs yet it can harm your kidneys and liver in the event that you take excessively.

2. The Co-proxamol

The Co-proxamol is a low-dosage rendition of paracetamol combined with codeine-based medication called dextropropoxyphene.

The medication has pain alleviating quality like a standard paracetamol however demonstrates a higher shot of getting you overdosed.

3. The Non-steroidals Anti-provocative Drug or the NSAIDs.

The permitted dose relies upon the kind of NSAID one is taking.

The Descriptions:

Ibuprofen is the most mainstream NSAID available. Its generally accessible and can be acquired without displaying any medical prescribes.


NSAIDs can cause ulcer, diarrhoea, stomachache, kidney harm and some of the time dying.

The NSAID are accessible in various structures beside oral tablets. They can be found in topical gels, suppositories and infusions.

a) NSAID gels

The NSAIDs gel are valuable in treating aggravations like musle strains, joint pain, and tendonitis.

Diverse types of NSAIDs shouldn’t be taken at the same time. An oral NSAID consumed by the body shouldn’t be aggravated with another NSAID applied topically as this will expand the possibility of reactions to show.

An excess of NSAID in the body can cause stomach disturbance and dying. Individuals who are endorsed to ingest NSAIDs for longer periods are normally given another medication to balance the harming impact of NSAIDs on their stomach. These balancing medications can be controlled as a different tablet, in spite of the fact that there are some that are joined with NSAIDs. One illustration is Napratec which is mix of misoprostol as the medication that secures the stomach and naproxen an NSAID.

b) COX-2 inhibitors

The COX-2 inhibitor is a particular sort of NSAID reachable just through medicine. Meloxicam, Celecoxib, and rofecoxib are common variations of the kind. These variations have less problems on the stomach contrasted with different NSAIDs.

Rofecoxib has the probability of a patient to encounter heart issues. With this, worries alternate variations may have comparative symptoms have been raise.

4. Aspirin Painkillers.

The most extreme dosage for grown-ups in normally.

Four grams everyday. The aspirin tablets are accessible in doses ranging 300mg – 900mg. Taken in each 4 – 6 hrs every day.

The Description:

The aspirin is a mellow painkiller, like paracetamol. Likewise can be accustomed to cut down the temperatures of somebody with fever. However, not given to individuals who have asthma or ulcer or any individual who is under inflammation treatment.

Headache medicine is utilized more as a blood slender instead of a painkiller. Its capacity to lessen blood clumps has been observed to be extremely valuable on individuals who show some heart issue.

Its side effect:

The aspirin only sometimes demonstrates reactions in patients. Albeit uncommon, its reactions incorporate ulcer, aggravation of the stomach, and lessened blood coagulating. It can likewise cause asthma assaults to individuals who have previous sthma issues.

5. The Opioids.

Dosage relies upon the kind of opioid one is utilizing.


They display properties like that of codeine ( the tramadols) and pethidine (the morphines). Opioids are chronic painkillers rather than acute wounds pains. They do not have the counter pyretic and antiinflammatory properties that different analgesics posses.

Weakest opioids accessible are found as dihydrocodeine and the codeine phosphate. These medications are the main structures accessible and might be used together with paracetamol without side effects.

The side effects:

Constipation, nausea, vomiting, and itching are a portion of side effects. Large doses reduces blood pressure.

Best Tips for Painkillers

Regardless of whether you’re encountering a genuine injury or a gentle headache, making sure to take the painkillers that gives you minimal side effects is good.

Supposing that the agony holds on even after continually taking paracetamol, you may take a stab at taking NSAID when you feel outrageous pains. In case it fails to work, attempt routinely ingesting NSAIDs with paracetamol.

The Ibuprofen can likewise be replaced using stronger NSAIDs or opioids like codeine if agony still perseveres.

Incase all above prescriptions still doesn’t help then its good consulting the doctor.


Painkillers ought to be ingested just as recommended. Much the same as some other pharmaceutical, you need to peruse understand the medication.

Kids are typically recommended lower dose which their bodies can deal with. Ingesting more than the suggested dose of any medication isn’t just hazardous yet in addition ineffective.

While ingesting any sort of medication, regardless of how safe it will be, it’s constantly better to be wary. In the event that you encounter any reaction or experiencing difficulty taking in your medicine, it’s best to counsel your specialist and look for their expert guidance.

What Are the Revealing Differences between Extroverts and Introverts?

An introvert is a person who primarily put all his or her focus on their mind, feelings, and affairs.

On the other hand, an extrovert is a person who is outgoing and sociable.

Extroverts are usually socially confident and concerned always with outer affairs.

There are differences between extroverts and introverts which are visible.

Let’s look at the differences between the two.

Social interaction matters most to extroverts.

They usually use social interactions to drive home their ideas.

On the other hand, introverts adore their private time.

The last thing they would want is an interruption to their personal plans.

When it comes to things happening in the surroundings, extroverts mind about them the most.

They usually give them a priority than what may be in their minds.

Introverts, on the other hand, dislike any attention.

This is regardless of whether the attention is positive or negative.

Extroverts respond quickly in regards to emotions and responses.

This is enabled by the nature of their brain to think in different directions at the same time.

Introverts, on the other hand, may be seen to be unsocial.

They can be easily judged by people because of their nature.

What people may not know about them is that they usually take time to think hence slow in giving their opinions.

When it comes to friendship circles, extroverts usually have the largest.

They tend to mingle very fast enabling them to make new friends in a short span of time.

Introverts usually take time to trust anybody.

They only create friendship when necessary.

They usually bond with those people who they deem important to their lives and people they trust.

When it comes to phone etiquette, extroverts may prefer to call than texting.

They are all over making introductions and are always ready to make any necessary explanation via a voice a call.

Introverts, on the other hand, may prefer texting than calling.

This is because, in nature, while texting you have a chance to think first before texting.

This is opposed to calling where in some instances; you need to give instant answers.

Extroverts are the best when it comes to embracing change.

They are comfortable to move anyway very fast without any preparation in advance.

Introverts are known planners.

Future matters to them the most.

They are slow to embrace change especially when the future is unknown to them.

However, they may be comfortable to move on when they understand the motive behind the change.

They should also be given enough time to make necessary arrangements.

Normally when it comes to listening skills, extroverts tend to listen less while they speak more.

When it comes to introverts, the case is vice versa.

They dislike social interaction so they tend to listen more and speak less.

Bonding is what all matters when it comes to friendship.

It’s the bond which determines whether you trust your friend or not.

Extroverts tend to create friendship which has less bonding.

They are easy to make friends which results in them making too many of them.

How do you bond with hundreds of people anyway?

To the contrary, introverts are extra cautious when it comes to the process of making friends.

They usually take time to find one.

Once they succeed, they surely have the best choice based on some factors.

In this case, introverts usually establish the friendship with much bonding based on mutual understanding.

When it comes to extroverts, their moods are rekindled through social interaction.

They find solace in social interaction than anywhere else.

Introverts, as opposed to extroverts, adore the time they spend alone.

They find more energy from the achievements they make all alone.

If we can define introverts in one term, we can say they are self-sufficient.

They can handle all their problems alone without any assistance.

They seek assistance very rarely and only when there is an urgent need to do so.

Extroverts to some extent seem not to trust their efforts to achieve any goal.

Rarely will they execute any idea no matter how sure they are about it without consulting.

They must seek an opinion from other people about what they are establishing or willing to start.

Introverts are the best when it comes to keeping secrets.

Rarely will you know what is going on in their private lives.

Since introverts interact occasionally, they have fewer chances to disclose to other people what their private lives entail.

As highlighted earlier, extroverts find more comfort in social places than when they are alone.

In that case, they tend to spend more time in public than in private.

Due to their social nature, they tend to disclose more about their private affairs.

They interact with so many friends over short periods of time.

This lowers their potency to keep secrets.

If you need a real-time friend, I would advise you go for an introvert.

Rarely will you be disappointed due to a leak of your secrets.

They are highly secretive which serves as a requirement for a good friend.

Though extroverts are quick to make friends, unfortunately, they don’t make the best friends.

As highlighted earlier, they create a friendship with less bonding.

Neither will your secret be safe with them, nor will you count on them in times of trouble.

Extroverts are the last people who you can base your trust on.

You may trust them but on your own risk.

I am not discouraging you to make friends with them but take great care.

If extroverts make the majority in your friends’ circles, then be guaranteed that one day you will be in for disappointments.

To be an extrovert or an introvert is not a matter of choice.

Mind you, it is all about nature.

You have less or no influence on where you belong.

Whether an introvert or extrovert, life must go on.

All you need to know is where you belong.

Once you know your nature, you will know how to live well and effectively.

Learn your friends and establish where they belong.

Hardly will you offend them when you know where they belong and their nature.

You can also judge on who to trust or not.

The Difference Between Autism and Schizophrenia

The medical world has through its lifetime undergone through a series of self-understanding as it tries to uncover different truths about different situations in a human being.

A human being has proven to be as complex as ever with each passing minute due to the difference in character and biology.

Although doctors understand the anatomy of a human being, no one really understands or predicts the happenings or the medical or psychological path of these human beings.

One minute you might be living the best tie of your life and the next you might be wondering what the purpose of your life in this world is.

Any medical condition that affects a human mind is considered one of the most sad and depressing conditions to the patient himself and to the people around him or her.

This is due to the fact that you get to experience what the patient is experiencing, especially for a loved one, throughout the period her she suffers from it without the ability to provide help or a cure.

Autism or ASD and Schizophrenia are two different medical conditions that are linked to a human brain which have from years back been considered to be one and the same thing.

However, there has been some rising disputes and concern about the diagnosis of these medical conditions in a bid to offer better treatment.

Some doctors and researchers argue that both Autism and Schizophrenia are different onsets of the same medical condition and have different symptoms due to the different stages a patient undergoes through.

Other researchers have found some ground to challenge this long standing fact which will be very beneficial in how both conditions are handled.

Autism is conspired as a wide spectrum disorder hence the name Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

This is a development disability which can occur in any human being caused by brain abnormality.

A typical definition of an individual suffering from autism is that he or she is suffering from social and communication skills development.

However, Autism Spectrum Disorder occurs differently in all patients and although there are similar characteristics in all patients, they all have different and unique characteristics at some stage in their life as well as their portrayal of strength and challenges.

This creates three categories based on the strengths and challenges under ASD. Asperger’s Syndrome, Pervasive Development Disorder and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder.

Statistically all these disorders occur in about 1 child in every 59 in America and tends to occur more in boys than girls.


This is medical disorder caused by a brain disorder affecting the thoughts, feelings and how this individual acts.

This disorder is chronic and statistics indicate that is currently affects about 1 percent of the global adult population.

There has been a general though in the world attributing violence to schizophrenia but this has over the past few years been disputed as symptoms vary from one individual to the other.

There are four major categories of this disorder which are:

Positive Symptoms

These include hallucinations which are the most common symptoms in most Schizophrenia patients.

Negative Symptoms

The negative term is bought out to show the elements which are subtracted from a person’s life when he or she is suffering from Schizophrenia. This includes the absence of facial expressions.

Cognitive Symptoms

This involves any symptom that is directly linked to the though process of an individual such as their concentration levels.

Emotional Symptoms

Emotions are a common thing to test on when diagnosing a client for Schizophrenia as it is the major thing affected by this disorder.

The diagnosis and Onset of Autism and Schizophrenia

Autism and Schizophrenia have long been considered as different stages of the same medical disorder due to their many similarities.

However, in distinguishing between these two, it has been stated that both have different ages in a human being where a doctor or any other individual can notice or diagnose the possibility of these two disorders.

Autism occurs very early in an individual and this can happen as early as 6 months after the birth of a child.

Clear indications or signs of this disorder occur or can be visible within the first three years of a child’s life.

Some will develop normally within the first few years of this bracket only to have a full blown effect at the last few months the three years while others will have a gradual occurrence of the symptoms.

On the other hand, Schizophrenia occurs later in a young individual’s life starting at around 16 to 30 years.

This aspect makes Schizophrenia very disabling in an individual’s life as they have already established a system in their life which they are unable to continue when diagnosed with this disability.

More males tend to develop the symptoms of Schizophrenia at an earlier age as compared to females.

This disorder has the ability to mask itself in a person’s life for many years but come on to undo his or her life at a later stage.

Social Dysfunctions

Autistic and Schizophrenic patients all suffer from social impairment as they lose the ability to show emotions as well as judgement of other people’s feelings and emotions.

This is due to the fact that researchers have discovered that some brain cells in these patients that process social information become less active with every passing day of the disorders.

However, Schizophrenic patients have been attributed to ill will in the society as they tend to be more reactive to peoples actions in the efforts of helping them.

This is also linked to the high hallucination rate suffered by any person suffering from Schizophrenia.

Autistic patients on the other hand have portrayed a more mild reaction and suffer from very few hallucinations as compared to Schizophrenia.

They are also more socially cynical based on their past experiences with people trying to handle or understand their behaviour.

Although these two disorders are increasingly becoming more prevalent in the global population, it is evident that separating them from their early stages and diagnosing one against the other has made it easier to treat and handle Autism and Schizophrenia which is the ultimate goal by the researchers and doctors in the medical world.

The 5 Things You Shouldn’t Do While Pregnant

So you finally got your hubby to take his masculinity seriously.

You told him how to increase penis girth – and he ejaculated loads into your fertile womb.

Now you’re pregnant.

Pregnancy is something that most people anticipate for in life.

When the moment finally arrives, most people are not sure of what to do to handle the situation right.

The state of things drastically changes from anticipation to confusion.

If you are expecting to be a mum, there are some factors you need to keep in mind.

For the sake of your health and that of your baby, there are some things you must stop doing and things you need to start doing.

Your doctor should be the primary source of information throughout the gestation period.

Make sure you disclose every single piece of information such as your feeding patterns, medications you use, whether you drink or not among others.

Disclosing such personal information is the first step to getting the best assistance from a doctor.

However, there are some things that you should keep in mind.

Here is a list of things you should not do while pregnant.

1. Don’t sit or stand for too long.

The health of the baby in your womb relies on the flow of blood in the body.

Therefore, during pregnancy, it is important to check how long you stay in a certain posture.

There are postures that may inhibit the flow of blood hence leading to complications.

If you do a job that involves standing or sitting for long hours you need to take a leave during the fifth month of pregnancy.

You should try taking small breaks from your posture from time to time in case you stay at work past the fifth month.

There are several side effects of standing or sitting for too long while pregnant.

Some of the common effects include swelling of veins and ankles and joint and back pain.

Taking short breaks will help facilitate the flow of blood in the body hence cooling down some of these effects.

However, the best position for most mothers is to lie down.

You should spend at least 8 hours of sleep per night and 2 to 3 hours of sleep during the day.

2. Don’t Be A Passive Smoker.

Most people seem to understand that smoking is not good during pregnancy.

However, most expectant mothers downplay the effects of passive smoking.

Passive smoking is as dangerous to an unborn baby as direct smoking.

Research shows that a passive smoker consumes more caffeine than the direct smoker.

If you stay with a person who smokes round the clock, you are exposing your baby to the same dangers as if you were smoking.

There are more than 4000 chemicals in second-hand smoke all of which wind u in your blood system.

To ensure that you do not compromise the health of your baby, stay away from smoking individuals entirely.

Some of the effects of smoking on your pregnancy include the risk of miscarriage, premature delivery, low birth weight and cancer among others.

Smoking while pregnant may also cause behavioral issues for your baby when he/she grows up.

3. Don’t Change Kitty Litter.

There are many reasons why you should avoid any contact with kitty litter.

In fact, you should entirely avoid contact with pets if that is possible.

Cats and dogs may carry parasites that are not good for you and your baby.

If you love spending time with your pet so much ensure that he/she is very hygienic.

The most important aspect when dealing with pets is to avoid direct contact with their litter.

If you must clean your kitty’s litter bin use gloves.

Cats, to be specific, carry toxoplasmosis which is a dangerous parasitic disease.

You may contract this disease by eating raw meat and getting in contact with infected waste.

Get someone else to dispose of your kitty litter to avoid the risk of infection.

4. Don’t Spend Much Time In A Jacuzzi or a Hot Tub.

Pregnancy is synonymous with getting tired and feeling fatigued.

Most people prefer relaxing in some hot water- usually mixed with medicinal essential oils.

You may find information on many websites advising the use of a hot water bath as a way of reducing your fatigue during pregnancy.

The truth is that spending too much time in a hot tub or a sauna may not be very good for you or your baby.

When you soak yourself in the water you tend to raise your body temperature to that of the water.

Elevated body temperature is a risk, especially during the first trimester.

This does not mean that you can not have a warm bath.

A warm bath can have the same relaxing effects as the hot tub adventure but with no side effects.

The bathtub or sauna water is usually at around 104, which is not recommended.

Spending too much time in hot water may lead to giving birth to a child with some defects.

5. Don’t Wear High Heels.

Wearing heels while you are pregnant is not advisable at all.

You may wear low heels up to three inches during the early stages of pregnancy.

Mostly, most people can stick to their normal fashion during the first trimester.

However, when the baby continues to grow, your body weight does not allow you to keep on with high heels.

Your body weight starts increasing and your body’s center of gravity changes.

By wearing heels, you affect the flow of blood in the body and the position of the bay in the womb.

Stick to low heels and flat shoes from your second trimester to the delivery.

High heels may also cause swollen ankles, veins, fatigue and general tiredness.


In the anticipation for your baby, make sure you do everything possible to keep him/her safe.

The safety of the baby starts with the things you do in your daily life.

You will have to adjust a lot of things so that your little one can remain healthy and safe.

Besides the things mentioned above, you will have to receive directions from your doctor regularly.

Your doctor will advise you on which foods to take and which ones to avoid.

You also need to know whether you are allowed to take certain medication or not.

The best option is to try and stay safe by avoiding eating anything you are not sure about.

Stick to a simple life and avoid straining your body.

Most importantly, constantly consult your doctor when you are not sure about anything.